typedef int (*funcptr)();

An engineers technical notebook

Build numbers in binaries using waf

My build system of choice these days for any C++ project is waf. One of the things I always like havig is the build number included in the final binary, so that with a simple ./binary --version or even ./binary the version is printed that it was built from. This can make it much simpler to debug any potential issues, especially if fixes may have already been made but a bad binary was deployed.

Setup the wscript

Make sure that your wscript somewhere near the top contains the following:

APPNAME = 'myapp'
VERSION = '0.0.0'

Then in your configure(cfg) add the following:


git_version = try_git_version()

if git_version:
    cfg.env.VERSION += '-' + git_version

The try_git_version() function is fairly simple and looks like this:

def try_git_version():
    import os
    import sys

    version = None
        version = os.popen('git describe --always --dirty --long').read().strip()
    except Exception as e:
        print e
    return version

It runs git describe --always --dirty --long which will return something along these lines: 401b85f-dirty. If you have any annoted tags, it will return the tag name as well.

If git is not installed, or it is not a valid git directory, then it will simply return None. At that point all we have to go on is the VERSION variable set at the top of the wscript.

Now that we have our configuration environment set up with the VERSION we want to get that into a file that we can then include in our C++ source code.

Create a build_version.h.in file


char VERSION[] = "@VERSION@";

#endif /* BUILD_VERSION_H_IN_941AD1F24D0A9D */

Add the following to build(ctx)

        VERSION = ctx.env['VERSION'],

This uses the substitution feature to transform build_version.h.in into build_version.h, while inserting the version into the file.

Include build_version.h in your source code

#include "build_version.h"

And add something along these lines to your main():

std::cerr << "Version: " << VERSION << std::endl;

This will print out the VERSION that has been stored in build_version.h.

Full example

Check out my mdns-announce project on Github for an example of how this is implemented.

Tamper proof session cookies and session storage

As a follow-up to my previous article regarding User sessions, what data should be stored where?, I wanted to discuss how to store the session, and how to generate cookies that are tamper proof.

What are we trying to accomplish?

Ultimately we want to be able to have X amount pieces of data that are tied to a particular user. Unfortunately due the fact that HTTP is a stateless protocol we have to use cookies. Cookies are small little pieces of data that are transmitted from the server to the client (generally done once), and then upon the user coming back to the website they are transmitted from the client to the server. This allows us to uniquely track a single user across connections to our website.

If the website allows a user to authenticate and the fact that they are authenticated is stored in the session, we also want to make sure that we can aggressively expire a session, if this is possible depends on our session storage.

Session storage

There are a multitude of ways to store the session data, but it ultimately boils down to server-side or client-side. Server-side can be done in Cassandra, Memcache, Redis or even in a SQL database.

Server-side storage

The main one that has been used for years is to use server side storage. Storing a small file on the servers hard drive that contains the data, and the client is sent a cookie that contains a unique identifier that is linked to the on-disk storage.

For example:

1 => /tmp/session_1
2 => /tmp/session_2
N => /tmp/session_N

Easily expire sessions

The upside to server-side storage is that it is possible for us to very easily expire a session, simply remove the associated file/data that is stored and the users session has now become invalid.

Client-side storage

The other method that has recently started being used more to make it easier to scale the server side is to store session data encoded in base64 in the cookie itself. In this case there is no unique session ID, and no data is stored server side.

Expiration is more difficult

The downside to using client-side storage is that there is no way, short of the expiration on the cookie itself for the website to expire a session. There are work-arounds, but they all require storing state server-side. A hybrid approach for example is possible, store a unique ID along with the session data, and store that unique ID server side, but none of the extra data. Remove the unique ID server side and if we receive a session that contains a unique ID we don't recognise, we simply clear the session.

Expiration, why do I care?

Being able to easily expire a users sessions allows for extra security measures. For example in Google Mail it is possible to sign out all other locations, this forces those other locations to re-authenticate before gaining access to your account.

This is a good security measure to have, so that if a users cookie is stolen, or their credentials are compromised upon changing their password all their sessions are invalidated and an attacker using an old cookie/session ID can't continue to wreak havoc on the users account.

Cookie format

If we are just storing a session ID, or the full session the cookie should be hardened so that it can not be tampered with by a client. Even if you are protecting the cookie using SSL, we still don't want to allow a malicious user to modify the cookie to change the session ID or the session itself.

Signing your cookie

The single best way to make sure your cookie has not been tampered with is to cryptographically sign your cookie, and upon receiving the cookie from the client verifying that the signature matches what you are expecting. This is especially important if you are using client-side storage, because you don't want someone to be able to change the user ID from 950 to 1 and suddenly impersonate a different user.

Use an HMAC

HMAC (Hash-based message authentication code) is an cryptographic construct that uses a hashing algorithm (SHA-1, SHA-256, SHA-3) to create a MAC (message authentication code) with a secret key. It is very easy given the secret key and the original data to create the MAC, but it is very difficult if not impossible to take the original data, and MAC and get the secret key.

This allows us to do the following:

data = "Hello World"
mac = HMAC(data, sha256, "SEEKRIT")

Our mac would now be equal to:


If we now create our cookie as follows:

cookie = mac + " " + data

It would look as follows:

cookie = e655f98cb9b3c02f45576f7906d64b0b7f8731f25a5319c42ca666917aca45a4 Hello World

We can then send that to the client that requested the page. Once the client visits the next page, their browser will send that same cookie back to use. If we split the mac from the data, we can then do the following operation:

cookie = e655f98cb9b3c02f45576f7906d64b0b7f8731f25a5319c42ca666917aca45a4 Hello World
data = "Hello World"
mac = e655f98cb9b3c02f45576f7906d64b0b7f8731f25a5319c42ca666917aca45a4

mac_verify = HMAC(data, sha256, "SEEKRIT")

mac_verify == mac

If and only if mac_verify and mac are the same can we be sure that the cookie has not been tampered with.

This requires that the client is NEVER aware of what we are using as our secret key. In the above exmaples that is "SEEKRIT". In your web application you will be required to make this a configuration variable, and you will have to take care not to commit that configuration variable to a git repository and upload it to github (for example).

Do not use a bare hash algorithm

Using a bare hash algorithm allows for length extension attacks if used incorrectly, this would allow an attacker to concatenate extra data to the end of our existing data, modify the "MAC" and the server would accept it.

This construct is thus very dangerous:

data = "Hello World"
key = "SEEKRIT"
mac = SHA1(key + data)

The following construct is still not recommended, but is not nearly as dangerous:

mac = SHA1(data + key)

Due to the key being last, this is not vulnerable to a length extension attack, however please don't do this, instead stick to using an HMAC instead.

Encrypting session data

When using client-side storage, it may be beneficial to encrypt the data to add an extra layer of security. Even if encrypting the data you need to continue using a MAC.

Using just encryption will not protect you against decrypting bad data because an attacker decided to provide invalid data. Signing the cookie data with a MAC makes sure that the attacker is not able to mess with the ciphertext.

What are web frameworks/languages doing by default?

I am most familiar with the Pylons Project's Pyramid Web Framework, the default session implementation that is provided by the project is named SignedCookieSessionFactory, as the name implies this uses a client-side cookie to store the session data, which is signed using a secret key that is provided upon instantiation of the factory.

Flask sessions also uses a signed cookie for client-side session storage.

Ruby on Rails uses a signed/encrypted cookie for client-side session storage by default.

PHP does not by default sign the session cookie, it does however use server-side storage for session data by default. However extra security can be added by installing PHP SuHoSin which adds session cookie encryption/signing.